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Engineering Chemistry OR Engineering Physics-Pune

Engineering Physics

Teaching scheme:
Lectures – 2 Hrs./Week
Practicals- 1Hrs./Week

Examination scheme:
Paper – 50 Marks(2Hrs)
Online – 50 Marks
T.W. – 25 Mark

Course Objectives

1) To provide the basic concepts to resolve many engineering and technological problems.

2) After completing this course students will be able to appreciate and use the methodologies to analyze and design a wide range of engineering systems.

3) To use various techniques for Measurement, Calculation, control and Analysis of engineering problems based on the principles of Optics, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, Quantum Physics, Superconductivity, laser, Physics of nanoparticles and semiconductor physics.

4) To understand the recent trends and advances in technology, this requires precise control over dynamics of macroscopic engineering systems.

5) Basic sciences like Physics also invoke manipulation of processes over micro- and even nano-scale level as there is a growing demand of solid understanding of principles of basic sciences.

6) Physics provides the basic ideas and gives the solution for developing mathematical and analytical abilities with higher precision.

Unit I: Interference-Diffraction and its Engineering application: (8 hrs)


Introduction, Concept of thin film, Interference due to thin films of uniform thickness (with derivation), Interference due to wedge shaped thin films (qualitative), fringe width (with derivation), Formation of colors in thin films, Newton’s rings, its applications i) for the determination of wavelength of incident light or radius of curvature of a given plano-convex lens, ii) for the determination of refractive index of a given liquid, Application of interference i) testing of optical flatness of surfaces, ii) Thickness of thin film, iii) anti-reflection coating.

Diffraction : – Diffraction of waves, classes of diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit (geometrical method), conditions for maxima and minima, Intensity pattern due to a single slit, Diffraction at circular aperture, plane diffraction grating (qualitative only), Conditions for maxima and minima, Intensity pattern, Scattering of light as an application of diffraction (qualitative only).

Unit -II: Sound Engineering (8 hrs)

Definition: Velocity, frequency, wavelength, intensity, loudness (expression), timber, of sound, reflection of sound, echo, Reverberation time, Sabine’s formula (qualitative only), remedies over reverberation Absorption of sound, absorbent materials, Conditions for good acoustics of the building, Piezo-electric and magnetostriction oscillator, Detection of ultrasonics, Engineering application of ultrasonics (Non-destructive testing, cavitations, measurement of gauge).

Unit-III: Polarization and Laser (8 hrs)


Introduction, Polarization of waves, Polarization of light, Representation of PPL, UPL, and partially polarized light, Production of PPL by i) Reflection, ii) Refraction (pile of plates), iii) Selective absorption (dichroism) iv) Double refraction. Law of malus, Huygen’s theory of double refraction cases of double refraction of crystal cut with the optic axis lying in the plane of incidence and i) parallel to surface ii) Perpendicular surface iii) Inclined to surface, retardation plates, QWP, HWP, optical activity, specific rotation (qualitative only), optically active materials, LCD (as an example of polarization).


Absorption, spontaneous emission, requirement for lasing action (stimulated emission, population inversion, metastable state, active medium, resonant cavity, pumping) characteristics of laser monochromaticity, coherence, directionally, brightness, various levels of laser systems with examples i) two levels system-semiconductor laser, ii) three level laser system:- ruby laser, iv) four level laser system:- He-Ne laser.

Applications in Industry (drilling, welding, micromachining etc), Medicine (as a surgical tool), Communication (Principle and advantages only) information Technology (Holography-Recording and reconstruction).

Unit IV: Solid State Physics (8 hrs)

Band theory in solids, free electron theory (qualitative) electrical conductivity in conductor and semiconductor, influence of external factors on conductivity (temperature, light and impurity), Fermi energy, density state (qualitative) concept of effective mass, electrons and holes, Fermi-Dirac probability distribution function (effect of temperature on Fermi level with graph), Position of Fermi level in intrinsic semiconductor (with derivation) and extrinsic semiconductors, Dependence of Fermi level on temperature and doping concentration (qualitative), diffusion and drift current (qualitative), band structure of PN junction diode under i) zero bias, ii) forward bias iii) reverse bias, Working of transistor (NPN only) on the basis of Band diagram, Half effect (with derivation), Photovoltaic effect working of solar cell on the basis of band diagram and its applications.

Unit V: Wave Mechanics (8 hrs)

Wave particle duality of radiation and matter, De Broglie’s concept of matter waves, expressing de Broglie wavelength in terms of kinetic energy and potential, concept and derivation of group and phase velocity, group and phase velocity of matter waves, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Illustration of it by electron diffraction at single slit, why an electron cannot exist in the nucleus, concept of wave funciton ψ and probability interpretation of $latex left|psiright|^2$, Schrodinge’s time independent and dependent wave equations, applications of Schrodinger’s time independent wave equation i) Particle in I-D rigid box (infinite potential well), Comparison of quantum machanical predictions ii) Particle in 1-D non rigid box (finite potential well- qualitative, results only), tunneling effect, example of tunneling effect in tunnel diode and scanning tunneling microscope.

Unit VI: Superconductivity and Physics of Nano-particles. (8 hrs)


Introduction to Superconductivity, Properties of superconductors (zero resistance, Meissner effect, critical fields, persistent currents), isotope effect, BCS theory, type-I and type-II Superconductors, Applications (superconducting magnets, transmission lines etc.) DC and AC Josephson Effect.

Physics of nano-particles:

Introduction, Nanoparticles, Properties of nanoparticles: Optical, electrical (quantum dots, quantum wires), magnetic, structural, mechanical, brief introduction to different methods of synthesis of nanoparticles such as physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, Synthesis of colloids, Growth of nanoparticles, Synthesis of metal nano-particles by colloidal route, Application of nanotechnology- electronics, energy, automobiles, space and defense, medical, environmental, textile, cosmetics.

List of the experiments

Conduct any Eight experiments from the following

1) Newton’s rings

2) Plane diffraction grating for the determination of unknown wavelength

3) Law of Malus

4) Brewster’s Law

5) Double refraction (Determination of refractive indices, identification of types of crystal)

6) Half shade polarimeter

7) Laser based experiment (beam divergence)

8) Laser based experiment-(thickness of wire/ determination of no of lines/cm of a grating)

9) Ultrasonic interferometer for the determination of compressibility of liquid:-$latex beta=frac1{left(rho v^2right)}$ where, v is the velocity of ultrasonic waves through liquid and ρ is density of liquid.

10) Measurement of sound pressure level

11) Determination of band gap of a given semiconductor

12) Half effect

13) Solar cell characteristics, measurement of Voc, Isc, fill factor

14) Temperature dependence characteristics of semiconductor laser

15) Determination of absorption coefficient of sound of given material

Text Books:-

1) Engineering Physics, Avadhanulu, Kshirsagar, S. Chand Publications

2) Engineering Physics, Gaur, Gupta, Dhanpat Rai and Sons Publications

Reference Books:
1. Optics, Jenkins and White (Tata Mcgraw Hill)
2. Fundamentals of Physics, Resnick and Halliday (John Wiley and Sons).
3. Principles of Physics, Serway and Jewett (Saunders college publishing)
4. Introduction to Solid State Physics, Kittel C (Wiley and Sons)
5. Laser and Non-Linear Optics, B.B. Laud (Oscar publication)
6. Nanotechnology, Principles and Practices, Dr. S.K. Kulkarni (Capital Publishing Company)


Engineering Chemistry

Teaching scheme:
Lectures – 2 Hrs./Week
Practicals- 1Hrs./Week

Examination scheme:
Paper – 50 Marks(2Hrs)
Online – 50 Marks
T.W. – 25 Mark

Course Objectives:

After completing this course students will be able to understand:

1) Technology involved in improving quality of water for its industrial use.

2) Basic concepts of Electro analytical techniques that facilitate rapid and reliable measurements.

3) Chemical structure of polymers and its effect of on their various properties when used as engineering materials. To lay foundation for the application of polymers for specific application and as composite materials.

4) Study of fossil fuels and derived fuels with its properties and applications.

5) An insight into nano materials and composite materials aspect of modern chemistry.

6) The principles of chemical and electrochemical reactions causing corrosion and methods used for minimizing corrosion.

Unit I: Water technology and Green Chemistry (8 hrs)

Water technology:-

Impurities in water. Hardness of water and its determination by EDTA method,  Alkalinity of water and its determination. Numerical. Ill effects of hard water in boiler feed water treatment 1) Internal treatment-Calgon, colloidal and phosphate conditioning, 2) External treatment a) Zeolite process and its numericals b) Ion exchange method. Desalination of brackish water/purification of water by reverse osmosis and Electrodialysis.

Green Chemistry:

Definition goals of green chemistry, efficiency parameters. need of Green Chemistry Major uses-traditional and green pathways of synthesis of adipic acid, polycarbonate, indigo dye.

Unit 2: Electro analytical techniques (8 hrs)

Introduction: Types of reference electrode (calmoel electrode), Indicate electrode (glass electrode); ion selective electrode, Half cell reaction and complete cell reaction.

Conductometry: introduction, Kohlrausch’s Law, conductivity cell, measurement of conductance, Application-Conductometric titrations, acid-base titrations, precipitation titrations.

pH-metry: Preparation of Buffers, standardization of pH meter, mixture of acids verses strong base titration, differential plots.

Potentiometry: Introduction, Potentimetric titrations-diffrential plots, Application-redox titrations Fe/Ce titration.

UV/Visible spectroscopy: Interaction of radiation with matter, Beer Lambert’s law, chromosphere and auxochrome, types of electronic transitions. Instrumentation and principle-Block diagram of single and double beam spectrophotometer, Application of uv-visible spectroscopy.

Unit 3: Synthetic Organic Polymers (8 hrs)

Introduction, functionality of monomer, polymerzation-free radical mechanism and step growth polymerization. concept and significance of -Average molecular weight, crystallinity in polymers, Tm and Tg. Thermoplastic and Thermosetting polymers, Compounding of plastics. Techniques of polymerization preparation, properties and engineering application of: Polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and Epoxy resin. Elastomers-natural rubber-processing and vulcanization by sulphur. Synthetic rubbers-SBR.

Speciality polymers: Engineering thermooplastics- Polycarbonate, Biodegradable polymers-poly(hydroxybutarate-hydroxyvalanate), Conducting polymers-polyacetylene, electroluminescent polymers- Polyphenylenevinylene, liquid crystalline polymers- Kevlar, polymer composites – fibre reinforced plastic (FRP).

Unit 4: Fuels and combustion (8 hrs)

Fossil fuels; Definition. Calorific values, Determination-Bomb calorimeter, Boy’s gas calorimeter, numericals. solid Fuel_Coal-Proximate and ultimate analysis, Numericals. Liquid fuels- Petroleum-Composition and refining. Octane number of petrol, Cetane number of Diesel, Power alcohol, Biodiesel, Gaseous fuel-Composition, properties and application of NG, CNG, LPG.

Combustion: Chemical reactions, calculations for air required. numericals.

Fuel cells- definition, adavantages and limitaions, phosphoric acid fuel cell, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

Unit 5: Chemistry of Hydrogen and carbon (8 hrs)

Chemistry of Hydrogen: The element- isotopes-importance. Method of prparation1) laboratory-from aqueous acid and alkali. 2) industrial-steam reforming of methane and coke, electrolysis of water. 3) From solar energy (water splitting). Storage-chemical (sodium alanates), Physical (carbon materials), difficulties in storage and transportation. Compounds of hydrogen. methods of preparation and applications-a) Molecular hydrides-hydrocarbons=, silane =, germane, ammonia. b) Saline hydrides- LIH, NaH. Applications of Hydrogen, Hydrogen as a future fuel.

Unit 6: Corrosion Science (8 hrs)

Introduction. Type of corrosion Dry corrosion mechanism, Pilling-bed worth rule. Wet corrosion-mechanism. Factors Influencing corrosion-Nature of metal Nature of environment Method of corrosion control: Pourbaix diagram, Cathodic and anodic protection, Use of Inhibitors, Protective coatings: surface preparation. a) Metallic coatings: Type of coatings, methods of application, (hot dipping, cladding, electroplating and cementation), Electro less coatings, b) Non-metallic coatings: chemical conversion coatings. powder coatings.

Text Books:

1. Engineering Chemistry by iO.G. Palanna, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd..
2. A Textbook of Engineering Chemistry by Dr. S.S. Dara, Dr. S.S. Umare, S. Chand and Company Ltd.

Reference Books:

1. Engineering Chemistry, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. First edition 2011.
2. Inorganic chemistry, 5e, by Shriver and Atkins, Oxford University Press.
3. Hydrogen fuel-production transport and storage, Ram Gupta, CRC press.
4. Basic Concept of Analytical Chemistry, 2e, by S.M. Khopkar, New Age International Publishers.

Term Work: Any eight experiments:

1. Determination of hardness of water by EDTA method.
2. Determination of alkalinity of water.
3. Determination of dissociation of weak acid (acetic acid) using pH meter.
4. To determine maximum wavelength of absorption of CuSO4/FeSO4, verify Beer’s law and find unknown concentration in given sample.
5. Titration of mixture of weak acid and strong acid with strong base using conductometer.
6. Preparation of polystyrene and phenol-formaldehyde/urea-formaldehyde resin and its characterization.
7. Determination of molecular weight/radius of macromolecule polystyrene/polyvinylalcohol by viscosity measurements.
8. Proximate analysis of coal.
9. Preparation of nickel coating on copper metal using both methods, Electroplating and Electro less plating.
10. Determination of electrochemical equivalent (ECE) of copper.

Terms work is based on performance and regular checking of the experiments.

Laboratory manual:

1. Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 6e, by j.Mendham, R.C. Denney, J.D. Barnes, M.J.K. Thomas, Pearson Education Ltd.
2. Applied Chemistry Theory and Practice, 2e, by O.P. Virmani and A.K. Naruda, New Age International (P) Ltd.

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