Preparing Electromagnetics GATE is considered as one of the tough-tasks by most of the GATE aspirants. Well, it might be.

But with proper strategic planning and hard work, Electromagnetics can be turned out to be the most scoring subject. This article discusses the same.

## Electromagnetics or Electromagnetic Theory or EMT

It is one of the core subjects for EC/EE students preparing for the GATE Exam. Following is the overview of the syllabus for Electromagnetics GATE 2024 (EC/EE).

### GATE EC-Section: Electromagnetics

- Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation
- Boundary conditions, wave equation,
- Poynting vector.
- Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction,
- polarization, phase and group velocity,
- Propagation through various media, skin depth.
- Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart.
- Rectangular and circular waveguides
- Dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.

### GATE EE-Section: Electromagnetic Fields

- Coulomb’s Law
- Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density
- Gauss’s Law, Divergence
- Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions
- Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations
- Biot-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law
- Curl, Faraday’s law
- Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force
- Reluctance, Magnetic circuits
- Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

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## Common Problems faced by most of the students while preparing for Electromagnetics GATE

I mentor many GATE aspirants for the effective preparation of the subject Electromagnetics every year. And I have found that the Pupils generally face following difficulties while preparing GATE particularly the Electromagnetics.

- Linkage between different Coordinate Systems.
- Interpretation and applications of different types of integrals like line, surface and volume.
- Applying Maxwell’s equations point form.
- Recalling Maxwell’s equations and their application to derive the wave equations.
- Confusing and lengthy derivations for transmission lines and waveguides etc.

Every student may have the different story but one thing I can say for sure is many students struggle while preparing Electromagnetics GATE.

If we observe the Previous GATE Papers, one can easily find that the weight-age for Wave equations, Transmission Lines and Waveguides is significant.

So many of the students directly hop into them. And I think this is the biggest mistake while preparing for the Subject.

Wave equations, Reflection and Refraction of EM waves, Waveguides etc. are no doubt important topics but these are advanced or applicative topics as well.

One has to be cleared with the concept of the Wave equation for excelling these topics. This becomes inevitable.

And to have the firm grip over the Wave Equations and their interpretations, one must know Coordinate systems and their conversion, Gauss and Ampere’s Laws with their applications, Faraday’s Law, Boundary conditions etc.

Because ultimately all these concepts are used to form the Wave equations. So I think. the pupil has to go through these steps. He has to build enough confidence over these basics by a lot of practice so that not to stumble over the advanced topics.

## Ideal Strategy for EMT Preparation

Every student has his/her own way of preparation. But based on the experience with many students, I strongly suggest the three-step preparation strategy for the preparation of Electromagnetics GATE.

- Detailed Study
- Abridged Study and
- Evaluation

In the detailed study, according to the time constraint of the individual, one should prepare rather understand every small concept with the help of reference books or standard resources.

Ideally, this would consume your half of the available time of preparation. During this phase, you should make your own abridged content.

Once you have done with the detailed study, you are equipped with the tools to take the action. Strictly impose the topic wise test schedule upon yourself considering the time available.

While taking every topic, prepare thoroughly through the abridged content. Analyse yourself. Learn new things from the tests. Evaluate yourself without biasing.

Finally, before a month or two for the Exam, start taking full-length tests. Evaluate and analyse to win the subject.

Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it into small jobs. Have a strong focus and dedicated yearlong planning. Have no excuse for execution. No one can stop you from winning the Electromagnetics.

Thanks!

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