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## Electromagnetics

**Vector Analysis**:- Vector fields, gradient, divergence, curl.
- Gauss’s and Stoke’s theorems.
- Coordinate systems (Cartesian, cylindrical, spherical).

**Electrostatics**:- Coulomb’s law, electric field intensity, potential, and flux.
- Gauss’s law and its applications.
- Energy and forces in electric fields.
- Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations.

**Magnetostatics**:- Biot-Savart’s law, magnetic field intensity, and flux density.
- Ampere’s circuital law and its applications.
- Magnetic boundary conditions, magnetic materials, and their properties.
- Forces and energy in magnetic fields.

**Electromagnetic Fields**:- Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, and Maxwell’s equations (differential and integral forms).
- Time-varying fields, displacement current, and Maxwell’s equations in point and integral forms.
- Boundary conditions at interfaces, Poynting vector, and flow of power in electromagnetic fields.

**Wave Propagation**:- Wave equations for conducting and dielectric media.
- Plane waves, propagation in free space, and uniform plane wave equations.
- Reflection and refraction of plane waves at boundaries.
- Transmission lines, waveguides, and resonators.

**Transmission Lines and Waveguides**:- Transmission line equations, impedance matching, and Smith chart.
- Propagation and attenuation constants, phase and group velocities.
- Waveguides, modes, cut-off frequencies, and dispersion.
- Resonators, cavity resonators, and their applications.

**Antennas**:- Antenna parameters, radiation patterns, and antenna types (dipole, monopole, horn, parabolic, etc.).
- Antenna arrays, impedance matching techniques, and antenna measurements.

## Networks

**Network Basics**:- Concepts of R, L and C
- Understanding Voltage, Potential Difference, Power and Work
- Kirchoff’s Laws and basic Netwok simplifications

**Network Theorems**:- Kirchhoff’s laws, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, maximum power transfer theorem, superposition theorem, reciprocity theorem.

**Transient Analysis**:- Transient response of networks to step, impulse, and exponential inputs.
- Response of RL, RC, and RLC circuits to transient inputs.

**Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis**:- Phasor representation of sinusoidal signals, impedance and admittance, complex power, power factor correction.
- AC analysis of networks, frequency response, resonance in RLC circuits.

**Two-Port Networks**:- Analysis and characterization of two-port networks using parameters like Z, Y, h, and ABCD parameters.
- Network synthesis techniques, interconnection of two-port networks.

## Signals and Systems

**Basic Concepts**:- Continuous-time and discrete-time signals, periodic and non-periodic signals, energy and power signals.
- Signal operations: shifting, scaling, folding, addition, multiplication, differentiation, integration.

**Linear Time-Invariant Systems**:- System classification, system properties (linearity, time-invariance, causality, stability), impulse response and convolution.
- System characterization using differential and difference equations, block diagrams, and signal flow graphs.

**Fourier Series Representation**:- Representation of periodic signals using Fourier series, properties of Fourier series coefficients.
- Exponential Fourier series representation, complex form of Fourier series.

**Continuous-Time Fourier Transform (CTFT)**:- Fourier transform of continuous-time signals, properties of CTFT, duality property.
- Energy and power spectral density, Parseval’s theorem, convolution in frequency domain.

**Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT)**:- Fourier transform of discrete-time signals, properties of DTFT, duality property.
- Energy and power spectral density of discrete-time signals, convolution in frequency domain.

**Sampling and Aliasing**:- Sampling theorem, reconstruction of signals from samples, aliasing and anti-aliasing filters.
- Discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals, analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion.

**Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)**:- Definition of DFT, properties of DFT, inverse DFT.
- FFT algorithms (Radix-2, Radix-4), FFT computation techniques, applications of FFT.

**Z-Transform**:- Definition of Z-transform, properties of Z-transform, inverse Z-transform.
- Region of convergence (ROC), pole-zero plot, system analysis using Z-transform.

**Digital Filters**:- Classification of digital filters (finite impulse response, infinite impulse response), difference equations.
- Design of digital filters (FIR and IIR filters), windowing techniques, frequency sampling design methods.

**State-Space Analysis**:- State variables, state-space representation of systems, state transition matrix.
- Controllability and observability, realization of systems from state-space equations.

**Laplace Transform**:- Laplace transform of continuous-time signals, properties of Laplace transform, inverse Laplace transform.
- Laplace transform analysis of continuous-time systems, transfer functions, pole-zero analysis.

**Applications**:- Signal processing techniques: filtering, modulation, demodulation, spectral analysis.
- System response analysis, system stability, system modeling and simulation.

## Electronic Devices and Circuits

**Semiconductor Physics**:- Crystal structure, energy bands, carrier concentration, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.
- Charge carriers (electrons and holes), drift and diffusion currents, mobility, generation and recombination of carriers.

**Semiconductor Diodes**:- PN junction diode: I-V characteristics, diode models, reverse recovery time.
- Special purpose diodes: Zener diode, Schottky diode, varactor diode, light-emitting diode (LED), photodiode.

**Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)**:- BJT operation and configurations: common emitter, common base, common collector.
- BJT characteristics, transistor biasing, stability factors, thermal runaway, small signal analysis.

**Field-Effect Transistors (FETs)**:- JFET and MOSFET: operation, characteristics, biasing, small signal analysis.
- Enhancement and depletion mode MOSFETs, MOSFET amplifiers, CMOS logic gates.

## Analog Circuits

**Amplifiers**:- Single-stage amplifiers: common emitter, common base, common collector configurations.
- Multistage amplifiers, differential amplifiers, operational amplifiers (op-amps): ideal characteristics, inverting and non-inverting configurations, op-amp applications.

**Feedback Amplifiers**:- Feedback concept, types of feedback (positive and negative), effect of feedback on gain, bandwidth, and stability.
- Feedback amplifier configurations: voltage-series, voltage-shunt, current-series, current-shunt feedback amplifiers.

**Frequency Response**:- Frequency response of amplifiers: gain-bandwidth product, high-frequency response, low-frequency response.
- Bode plots, phase margin, gain margin, stability criteria.

**Power Amplifiers**:- Class A, Class B, Class AB, and Class C power amplifiers: operation, efficiency, distortion.
- Push-pull amplifiers, complementary symmetry amplifiers, power amplifier design considerations.

**Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps)**:- Op-amp characteristics, ideal and practical op-amp circuits, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, summing amplifier, difference amplifier.
- Integrator, differentiator, active filters, comparators, voltage regulators.

**Feedback Amplifiers**:- Positive and negative feedback, effect of feedback on gain, bandwidth, input and output impedance.
- Stability criteria, Barkhausen criterion, Nyquist stability criterion, phase margin, gain margin.

**Oscillators**:- LC oscillators: Colpitts, Hartley, Clapp oscillators.
- RC oscillators: Wien bridge oscillator, phase-shift oscillator.
- Crystal oscillators, frequency stability, startup conditions.

**Waveform Generators and Timers**:- Waveform generation using op-amps, relaxation oscillators, astable multivibrators.
- Monostable and bistable multivibrators, 555 timer IC and its applications.

**Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies**:- Linear and switching voltage regulators, series and shunt regulators.
- Voltage reference circuits, power supply filters, ripple and regulation.

## Digital Circuits

**Number Systems and Codes**:- Binary, octal, hexadecimal number systems, conversions between different number systems.
- Binary arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division.
- BCD (Binary Coded Decimal), excess-3, Gray codes.

**Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates**:- Basic laws of Boolean algebra: commutative, associative, distributive, De Morgan’s laws.
- Logic gates: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR gates, truth tables, logic expressions.

**Combinational Logic Circuits**:- Design of combinational circuits: adders, subtractors, multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders, decoders.
- Binary comparators, magnitude comparators, code converters.

**Sequential Logic Circuits**:- Flip-flops: SR, JK, D, T flip-flops, flip-flop excitation tables, triggering methods.
- Analysis and design of synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits.
- Counters: ripple counters, synchronous counters, binary and BCD counters, counter applications.

**Registers and Memory**:- Shift registers: serial-in parallel-out (SIPO), parallel-in serial-out (PISO), parallel-in parallel-out (PIPO), serial-in serial-out (SISO).
- Register types: shift registers, storage registers, universal shift registers.
- Memory systems: RAM (Random Access Memory), ROM (Read-Only Memory), EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM), EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM).

**Digital Arithmetic**:- Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division algorithms.
- Arithmetic circuits: half adder, full adder, subtractor circuits, carry-lookahead adders.
- Binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic, arithmetic logic units (ALUs).

**Digital Logic Families**:- TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic), CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor), ECL (Emitter-Coupled Logic) families.
- Logic gates and circuits using TTL, CMOS, and ECL technologies.

**Memory Devices**:- Static RAM (SRAM) and dynamic RAM (DRAM) organization, read and write operations.
- ROM types: PROM (Programmable ROM), EPROM, EEPROM, flash memory.

## Control Systems

**Introduction to Control Systems**:- Concepts of control systems, open-loop and closed-loop control, feedback control, advantages of feedback.

**Mathematical Modeling of Physical Systems**:- Modeling of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and electromechanical systems.
- Transfer function representation, state-space representation, block diagram representation.

**Time Response Analysis**:- Standard test signals: step, impulse, ramp, and sinusoidal inputs.
- Time response specifications: rise time, peak time, settling time, overshoot, steady-state error.
- Analysis of first-order and second-order systems, time domain specifications.

**Stability Analysis**:- Stability concepts: stability, asymptotic stability, instability, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion.
- Root locus method: construction of root locus, rules for sketching root locus, dominant poles, breakaway and break-in points.

**Frequency Response Analysis**:- Bode plots, gain margin, phase margin, Nyquist stability criterion.
- Frequency domain specifications, relationship between time and frequency domain responses.

**Compensator Design**:- Lead, lag, and lead-lag compensators, design specifications, frequency response techniques.
- PID controller: proportional, integral, and derivative control actions, tuning of PID controllers.

**State-Space Analysis**:- State-space representation of systems, state transition matrix, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors.
- Controllability and observability, state feedback, state observers, pole placement.

## Communications

**Introduction to Communication Systems**:- Basic concepts of communication: types of communication systems, communication channels, modulation, demodulation.
- Analog and digital communication, advantages of digital communication.

**Analog Modulation Techniques**:- Amplitude Modulation (AM): generation, frequency spectrum, power relations, demodulation techniques (envelope detection, synchronous detection).
- Frequency Modulation (FM): generation, frequency deviation, frequency spectrum, demodulation techniques (slope detector, FM discriminator).

**Digital Modulation Techniques**:- Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Pulse Position Modulation (PPM).
- Phase Shift Keying (PSK): Binary PSK (BPSK), Quadrature PSK (QPSK), Differential PSK (DPSK).
- Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): Binary FSK (BFSK), M-ary FSK.

**Digital Communication Systems**:- Baseband and passband signaling, line coding techniques (NRZ, RZ, Manchester encoding).
- Spread Spectrum techniques: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).

**Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion**:- Sampling theorem, quantization, PCM (Pulse Code Modulation), Delta modulation.
- DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter), ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) architectures and characteristics.

**Noise in Communication Systems**:- Types of noise: thermal noise, shot noise, flicker noise, white noise, impulse noise.
- Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise figure, Noise temperature, Noise in AM and FM systems.

**Digital Communication Techniques**:- Error detection and correction: parity check, Hamming codes, CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check), convolutional codes.
- Channel coding: Block codes, Reed-Solomon codes, Turbo codes, LDPC (Low-Density Parity-Check) codes.

**Multiplexing Techniques**:- Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM), Time Division Multiplexing (TDM), Code Division Multiplexing (CDM).
- Multiple Access Techniques: FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).

**Digital Modulation Schemes**:- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), Differential QAM.
- Carrier Phase Modulation (CPM), Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).